New Economy (Structure Economy)

The Structure Economy means to consider the economy as a structure and attempt to systematize it artificially.

To do that, it is necessary to have a clear design concept of the economic system, namely, the economy is, in essence, a matter of the system design concept.

In structuralism, the political system and the economic structure are not unified. Depending on the political system, there are the following: capitalistic Structure Economy, socialistic Structure Economy, totalitarian Structure Economy, monarchial Structure Economy, feudalistic Structure Economy, and religious Structure Economy.

My interest is in individualism, liberalism and democracy.

A structure consists of the whole and its parts. Each part that makes up the whole has its own function. A part has an autonomous function. The market, money, and industry are all parts, not the whole. What is important is the functions of each part and harmonization of the whole.

There are two distribution mechanisms: the market distribution mechanism and the organization distribution mechanism. It is not the market alone that performs the function of distribution. The market is a part, not the whole.


There are four elements that make up contemporary society. The first is modern science and the second is modern democracy. These are followed by the modern accounting system and modern sports as the third and fourth elements. The Structure Economy is constructed based on these four elements.


These four elements have the following factors in common:

The first factor is the quantity principle, or figure principle, which means mathematics.

Mathematics is characterized by visuality, operability and logicality. The fact that mathematics is visual, operable and logical has greatly contributed to its development. Another important factor is that the logical structure is common in all countries.

If a qualitative system were to be used, interpretations would differ. The use of mathematics has lowered the point of agreement.


The second factor is physicalness.

The basic concept is to eliminate metaphysical issues and to identify the rules behind matters that have appeared as phenomena. Therefore, this factor is focused on real things, i.e., materialism. I do not mean to make light of, or deny, metaphysical issues. I respect and put emphasis on them, therefore I withhold these issues for the time being. Laws work on the assumption of a law-abiding spirit. It is meaningless, however, to codify the law-abiding spirit. We can merely assume that such spirit exists.


The third factor is realism.

We should always take our stand based on reality and facts. I neither affirm nor deny metaphysical existence. I just deny ideological substance as the ground for logic or deduction. Consequently, the inductive method based on observation and/or experiments has an important role.


The fourth factor is logical positivism.

The proposition which is an assumption in logical positivism is an arbitrary hypothesis. It is necessary to follow the procedure of conducting an experiment based on a hypothesis, to obtain results, and to prove the hypothesis using the results.

In logical positivism like this, the procedure and the process are important. It is the same in democracy. Also, sport can be called “competition of procedure.”


The fifth factor is relativism.

A relative space is established at will. “At will” is the assumption. “At will” means that a will is working. Nothing comes into existence where there is no will; this is the essence of relativism.

A physical unit is a relatively fixed standard. In contrast, a monetary unit as an economic unit is a relatively changing standard, which makes the economic rules complicated. However, a monetary unit is also linear.


The sixth factor is the focus on doctrines and principles.

Modern world come into existence based on arbitrary rules. The doctrine and principle used herein are laws based on contracts and have features different from the laws of nature.

Once a doctrine is verified, the result is deductively derived. Unlike natural providence, the doctrine in this case is based on contracts.

The key is consistency among doctrines. A mathematical logic can verify consistency mathematically, but in society, which is an artificial space, consistence may not be sustained. That is why politics intervenes.

In the world of sport and accounting, consistency is maintained to some extent. Therefore, sport and accounting systems can have a solid foundation.


The seventh factor is the contract principle.

Contracts are a basic concept of democracy. The word “contract” here does not mean a mere engagement between persons, but is a concept that is formed with some universal existence as an intermedium. A contract comes into effect based on accompanying procedures. Thus, the procedure is important.

A contract is premised on an agreement put in statutory form. In terms of science, it is hypothesis-oriented. An agreement is a matter of possibility of consent. Science is grounded on actual being and verification. A contract is grounded on an agreement and procedures. So too is the collegial system. The first agreement is found in parliament and procedures.


The eighth factor is the philosophy of field.

A field is formed when an arbitrary space is filled with power according to a given law. An actual space is formed of multilayered fields. Each overlapping field is independent and united with each other using the substance of others or its own as media. Therefore, when the law of individual fields is clarified, the law behind phenomena can be revealed. This is a very important factor when considering a democratic society.


The ninth factor is structuralism.

The concept of a structure is a critical element when considering the modern world. In particular, democracy is a structural and institutional thought. It is premised on organizations and institutions. Of necessity, it is functionalism.

Also, logic has structure. Logical structure is an important element for expressing thoughts. A good example is dialectic, but dialectic is incompatible with modernization because consistency cannot be verified. If consistency cannot be verified, it can only be a sort of mysticism.


The tenth factor is functionalism.

What is important is function. With a function, a structure becomes dynamic. Whereas a structure seeks stability, a function does not. Sport is a function. Sport is an action.


The eleventh factor is informatization.

When considering the modern world, we cannot avoid thinking of the trend toward informatization. This trend is about to change the essence of the money economy. The modern world is going to see a new phase through the information revolution.


The twelfth factor is universalism, or generalization.

The essence of science is generalization. By means of generalization, science can become universal. An airplane flying over communist countries and an airplane flying over liberal countries have the same aviation principle. The same can be said for an airplane flying over Christian nations and Islamic nations. Contemporary humans take this as a matter of course, but some time ago, this was not the case. In some eras, people were considered to be different depending on their birthplace, race and god they believe in.

The thirteenth factor is standardization.

Standardization made sport come into existence. The further standardization advances, the more striking individual competence becomes.


The fourteenth factor is the liberation principle.

A liberation principle is also populism. Everyone can get involved in each other. The open society and system helped the modern world make a great leap forward. Humans have created a common foundation for the first time by sharing knowledge, information and technology.


The fifteenth factor is liberalism.

Liberty is brought about by laws. In an artificial space produced by rules, freedom of sport is guaranteed. There is no freedom in a lawless society.


The sixteenth factor is individualism.

None of science, democracy, accounting and sport is represented by the name of an individual, in other words, none of them can be seized by an individual. Science and technology have progressed by leaps and bounds because unrestricted research and rights of individuals are guaranteed. Industries have developed by taking advantage of the achievements of technical innovation to build created modern prosperity. The foundation is individualism.


The seventeenth factor is the concept of time.

The Structure Economy has the concept, or definition, of time in some form. Time is the unit of change. As far as accounting and sport are concerned, a certain time, i.e., the unit of change, is defined. The accounting term, or a round, count, set or time in various sports, are examples. The definition of time performs an important function.

The matter of time is a question of how to tick down an irreversible change. Time in a daily scene is seemingly universal. But, nothing is more relative than time. Sport gives a good example. The period during which the rules of the game apply is limited. Furthermore, it is individualistic. Players can stop the game. But, the common aspect is that it is still an irreversible change. The method of defining time identifies space-time.


The eighteenth factor is egalitarianism.

This is characterized by thorough elimination of attributes and abstraction. Egalitarianism and the merit system are the product of such actions. Egalitarianism used herein is not the principle of equality. Sports that impose a handicap are a good example. In sports, attributes other than sports-related matters are eliminated. In extreme cases, gender differences are disregarded. Players are evaluated by actual results and ability. In the logical sense, this means equality. Namely, no order or authority is admitted in the theory, and family lineage, race and social status are not taken into consideration. This is equality.


The term “Structure Economy” means to construct an economic system based on the above eighteen factors. The model is a professional sports organization, in particular, the NFL system.


The Structure Economy consists of five elements; the first element is the field, the second is the rules, the third is the players, the fourth is the referees and the fifth is numerical measurement.


The first element is the field. A field is an artificial space-time having a domain divided by a certain boundary. The important point is that a field is an artificial space-time. A field has a dual nature, that is, it is a space divided by humans and it is a time or physical space.

A field also has a characteristic of the modern world. It is an artificial space based on a contract. It has a nature clearly different from that of a physical space.

Space has not only the physical space axis but also the space-time axis.

In order to identify a space, a domain is important.

For modern sports, a certain range has been established. The rules of the game apply only inside the space created within the range.

The range is spatio-temporal. The time range indicates the elapse of time (e.g. period) or the case when a given requirement is satisfied (e.g. three-up and three down and set count). Such examples suggest the concept of time.

A space is defined by a boundary. The rules of a particular game apply within the boundary.


The second element is the rules. The rules are a force that acts only inside the field. That is, the field is an artificial place.

The rules are artificial laws and regulations. Therefore, the rules are laws or regulations that have a contractual character by necessity.

Freedom is maintained by the rules. There is no freedom in a lawless space.

Establishment of the rules is premised on disclosure of information.

Basically, the rules and the range are important. In economic terms, the rules are accounting and tax, commercial law and trade laws. The range means the market range.

The reason why accounting is considered to be a rule is that accounting exerts substantive functions. Accounting is not only for monitoring corporate activities but also for restricting them.

A game starts with a declaration and ends with a declaration. A sport has a start and an end. The start and end are effected by a call or declaration. A field is a space separated by the call of the start and end. In terms of accounting, it is represented by periodical loss.


The third element is players, teams and teamwork.

Sport is always a competition in which multiple players compete to score in accordance with the rules. A team sport is a competition among a predetermined equal number of players. It differs from sports performed by individuals, such as yoga, training and meditation. The players’ positions, movement and relations are important elements in deciding the rules.

Players in an economy are economic entities. Economic entities include governments, corporations and households.


The fourth element is refereeing.

Fair refereeing is performed by a referee, not players. A referee delivers his judgment responsibly on his own initiative in accordance with the predetermined rules. Referees maintain an independent position. The referee’s position itself has an autonomous function and structure.


The fifth element is scoring, that is, the results measured numerically. Modern society is a world focusing on figures.

All standards, evaluations and judgments are measured with numbers. The criteria for wins and losses in a game have already been decided and expressed in figures.


These are the basic elements of the Structure Economy.

The contemporary economy is a system premised on mass production and mass consumption, and based on growth and expansion. Thus, everything is excessive: excessive production, excessive consumption and excessive mobility. In a cost-saving and mature market, this system has a number of negative effects.


It is risky to think of an economy only in terms of demand and supply. The basis of the economy lies in labor and distribution.

The economic system is a system to distribute wealth depending on work performed and living conditions. In this sense, the economy is a whole made up of multiple combinations of many elements. The market and money are only parts of the economy. The distribution function does not lie in the market alone. As far as we consider the market and money only in terms of things that can be counted, we cannot control the contemporary economy. The market and money are just auxiliary means.

The basis of the Structure Economy is labor and distribution. The mechanism of labor and distribution is the foundation, based on which the system of production and consumption are the first layer. The second layer is that of demand and supply and the third layer is that of flow and stock. It is risky to consider the economy only in terms of demand and supply.


The basic unit of the Structure Economy is a nation.


What nation or society do you want to make? The views of the nation and the world should be the basis, because this is a major premise of the economy and business.


As for industries, it is necessary to clarify the needs and operations of an industry.


The key issue is the question: what is happiness for humans, people and mankind?


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New Economy